MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Machine)
MRI stands for Magnetic resonance imaging machine. It is a medical machine that is used to take images of various part of the body to observe disease and other health issues.
MRI was first used in 1977 to scan the full body of a human being. This device is also known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging or a Magnetic resonance tomography.
MRI scan is usually a better option than a CT scan. This machine is widely used in clinics and hospitals for medical purposes. But MRI scan process takes a lot more time and is louder as compared to CT scan.
MRIs can be used to scan the brain, joints and other parts of the body and to highlight abnormalities such as cancer in the body.
The Radiologist uses multiple RF pulses at different powers and in different sequences to manipulate the signal from those part of the body.
How MRI work?
MRI is a powerful diagnostic tool that use strong superconducting magnets and radio waves to generate images of the soft body tissues.
The human body is mostly of water molecules. So it contains a lot of hydrogen atoms. These atoms react in a very useful way to an MRI main magnetic field and emit radio waves in the nucleus of every hydrogen.
A hydrogen atom is a positively charged proton that spins around an axis like the planet earth. Usually these hydrogen protons spin about randomly oriented axes. When we put human being inside an MRI machine the things changes.
Suddenly the axes of the hydrogen protons realign with a powerful magnetic field and spin like a top at a specific frequency. Half of the proton face in the direction of the field and the other half in the opposite direction.
The MRI scanner target that protons in your body. Inside an MRI there is a coil placed near the part of the body being scanned. It has a radio antenna that transmits and receives radio frequency.
The MRI technologist uses it to send RF pulses at the resonant frequency of the spinning protons. When the RF Coil is turned on, the unmatched protons absorb the energy of the RF waves which causes them to flip on their axes.
They are still in line with the magnetic field but in the opposite direction. When the RF pulse stops, the protons release the absorbed energy and returned to their previous alignment and in doing so they emit a signal back to the coil.
The signal gets turned into an electric current which the scanner digitizes. Scanner processes the signal using advanced algorithms to produce the image.
Tissues with less water in it will have fewer hydrogen protons to emit signals back to the RF coils. Those appear darker on MRI scans.
The varying signal strengths get translated into various shades of grey which radiologists recognize as different types of tissue on the scan.
X-Ray machine used radiation to produce a medical imagining of the body. It has a controlled beam of radiation that provide the inside image of the body.
This machine uses X-ray for medical purpose. The X-ray falls on a human being body to see any defect in the body. X-ray was first invented in 1895. This device uses two deflecting plates to produce X-ray.
How X-ray work?
The X-ray machine contains two electrodes, a cathode, and an anode. A vacuum is created inside the small portion of the machine so that there is no air or any gas present inside.
The portion is enclosed by oil which acts as an insulating medium. The cathode is a negative charge and is made up of tungsten filament which has some specific dimension.
It is connected to two strong wire through which electricity is passed. So at a moment when the electricity is passed through the wire, the entire coil gets heated up.
As a result of that heating effect, it starts emitting electrons. The cathode is the source of electrons or cathode rays within the X-ray machine.
It also has a concave focusing which is made up of molybdenum and also has a negative charge. As a result of which the concave focusing start repelling the electrons which are produced from the filament towards the anode.
The anode is a positive charge which is also made up of tungsten. Tungsten is used in both anode and cathode because it has a very high atomic number and also have a high melting point and thermal conductivity.
So the filament is being protected from getting melting because of the high-speed electrons which are entering the anode. The anode in an X-ray machine is attached to a copper wire which is a very good conductor of heat.
A moment when electricity pass through the tungsten coil, there is the formation of electrons that are being released and travel at great speed hitting a particular area in the anode.
Then those X-rays fall on the human body and show the image of the body on the display screen. The bright spot on the X-ray paper shows various bones inside the human body and the dark spot represent the absence of matter in that particular area.
The sharpness of the image identifies the outline of an image with clarity. So to have a better sharpness the focal spot size that is present on the anode has to be as small as possible.
However, when the size of the focal sport is decreased there can be more heat generation that can lead to melting of the filament within the X-ray machine.
So to overcome that problem the focal spot is angulate at a specific degree of an angle compared to the central axes of the x-ray.
Best MRI and X-Rays Machine Manufacturers
1. Fujifilm Holdings
Fujifilm Holdings is a Japanese based company that was founded on January 20, 1934. This company is one of the most popular in manufacturing X-rays, MRI and other different medical devices.
In the past 50 years, Fujifilm Holdings has gained a lot of popularity in the pharmaceutical industry. The organization is capable of developing, producing, medical imaging, cosmetics, diagnostics equipment, and other devices that are related to medical.
Fujifilm main goal was to rule the photographic films of the country. But due to high success, they also gain popularity all over the world. Now they are developing day by day and is one of the best company in the World.
2. GE Healthcare
GE Healthcare is an American based company that was founded in the year 1994. In 24 years, this organization has proved a valid place in the market.
The company is distributing and manufacturing diagnostic imaging agents that are very useful in the medical industry. They are very well known from manufacture X-ray, CT scan and MRI scan.
Due to a huge success in America, GE Healthcare is now operating in more than 100 countries.
GE Healthcare also offers a lot of different services like solution services, performance improvement, and remote diagnostic and repair various medical devices that are manufactured within or outside the company.
3. Philips Healthcare
Philips is a very popular brand that produces various electronic devices. This organization was founded on 15 May 1891 and due to their experience and success in the electronic industry they also started Philips Healthcare to the server the medical industry.
Philips healthcare has spread its medical business all over the world. It is famous for manufacturing MRI, X-rays machine and presents healthcare solutions, cardiac devices, and patient monitoring.
Philips healthcare also provides education and training to a larger group of people all across the world. Due to the high demand for Philips products in the market, the company was able to earn a 12.3$ billion revenue in December 2011.
4. Shimadzu Corporation
Shimadzu Corporation is an ancient name in the industry. It is a Japanese based company that was founded in 1875 by Genzo Shimadzu.
This company is famous for manufacturing different medical products like MRI and X-ray machine. The main products of Shimadzu Corporation consist of inspection machines, laboratory instruments, testing machines, medical diagnostics, and many other things.
The company has a wide network all across the world from Asia to Europe to South America and Africa. Due to its remarkable products, Shimadzu Corporation was able to earn 3.3$ billion in revenue in the year 2012.
5. Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation
Toshiba is ruling the electronic world for the past decade. It is a Japanese based company that was founded on September 23, 1948.
Due to the success in Electronic equipment, the organization put a step forward in the medical industry. Toshiba utilizes their experience to produce the best medical products for their customers.
The corporation is famous for producing CT scan machine, MRI machine, and an X-ray machine. They also focus on different medial products. After seeing the positive response of the audience in Japan, the company has expanded its business all over the world.